PRÍNOS ARISTOTELOVHO MYSLENIA PRE STREDOVEKÝ DIALÓG KULTÚR VEDENÝ SV. TOMÁŠOM AKVINSKÝM
(The Contribution of Aristotle’s Thinking to the Medieval Dialogue of Cultures Led by St. Thomas Aquinas)
Abstract: The medieval culture of the 13th century on the campus of the University of Paris was a place of great scientific and cultural controversy. A large part of the Iberian Peninsula still belonged to the Muslim world and the West European thinkers so often sought scientific dialogue in search of philosophical and theological truth with the Muslim, but also the Jewish culture. St. Thomas Aquinas wrote an extensive work during his professorship at the University of Paris called “Summa contra gentiles”. Through it he sought to lead an in-depth dialogue with these great cultures. This dialogue was based on the truth of things as well as the spirit of truth and not some episodic or tactical opportunism. The disputes with the renegade believers are somewhat simpler because we can turn to the authority of the gospel of Jesus Christ, but if their participants are Muslims or Jews, we must resort to the authority of the Old Testament. For a dialogue with non-believers, we must turn to argue only on the basis of reason. However, this would be insufficient in religious matters. Nevertheless, logos provides legal rules and criteria to understanding. Unlike the Muslims, we cannot rely on force or the army, or the lure of worldly promises. Even miracles are not the first argument. The crucial importance in this dialogue is given to the gospel, which, far better than any miracles, shines through the witness of the worn and simple people who are able to believe the difficult truth, hope the high-profile reality and lead difficult lives. The introduction of Avicenna and Averroes into the controversy with Christian truth was not without consequences for St. Thomas. It lasted more than a century after his death. After a temporal ban by the Parisian bishop, the doctrine of St. Thomas was again allowed at this university. Ultimately, however, faith and reason cannot be opposed but only understood in their mutual compliance. This “theologically substantiated secularity” of St. Thomas, mainly based on Aristotle’s doctrine, represents an important message of the medieval Christian West for today.
Authors: Szaniszló OP, Inocent-Mária V.
Source: Konštatínove listy, 2017, vol.: 10, issue: 1, pages: 98-109 (PDF file)
Key words: ARISTOTLE’S PHILOSOPHY, MIDDLE AGES, ST. THOMAS AQUINAS, DIALOGUE WITH PAGANS